The Ring of Brodgar is one of Orkney's most beautiful and mysterious sites. And in a place as remarkable as Orkney, that's saying a lot.
People ask me, “Where did the stones come from?”
The answer seems to be – from all over Orkney.
At a site at Vestrafiold in Sandwick, eight miles away, you can still see quarried standing stones that ancient builders left propped up on supports.
These stones have been waiting for millennia to be taken away on rollers.
Naturally, I love the Ring of Brodgar and have visited our inspiring stone circle many times.
I've also been lucky enough to work on this amazing site with my friend, Professor of Archaeology Colin Richards.
I once visited the ring with Colin and geologist Dr John Brown. That was a fascinating experience.
John identified different types of stone that the builders used, including reddish stones placed on either side of the causeways.
Vestrafiold is only one source for the standing stones of Brodgar. Interestingly, a single yellow stone came from an outcrop of rock at Houton in Orphir, some nine miles away.
This yellow stone, now only a broken piece, would have contrasted beautifully with the reddish-brown and blue-grey stones that make up the rest of the circle.
Neolithic builders would have had to either drag the stone around the hills or float it along the coast on a raft.
The Stenness Loch was not joined to the sea in Neolithic times. The loch would have been a mixture of standing water and marsh land then, so they could not have used rafts to float the stone over. They must have painstakingly dragged it.
We can see that the stones were quarried from outcrops of rock, usually found on hillsides. Wedges would have been used to split the rock, breaking off a piece from along the top.
This process gave the builders one rough, natural face and edge and one smoother, quarried face and edge.
This pattern was consistent with all the stones: only one stone was taken from each outcrop.
If another stone had been quarried further back into the hillside, that stone would still have one natural face and one quarried face, but there would be two quarried edges. If a stone was taken from beneath the first stone, it would have two quarried faces.
One intriguing thing I've noticed is that all the quarried faces are positioned to show from the outside. The natural faces show from the inside, leaving the brighter rock of the quarried side to face people as they look at the ring from outside the circle.
This artful manipulation must have made the stones appear even more impressive.
And remember - as the discovery of painted stones at the nearby Ness of Brodgar has shown - these standing stones may once have been decorated with colourful designs.
Around the Ring of Brodgar is a rock-cut ditch, 3 meters (10 feet) deep. It seems to have been put in place as the last phase of construction, after the stones were erected.
I had the privilege of working on an archaeological dig in this ditch in 2008. I like to think that I was the first Orcadian man to stand there since Neolithic times. (I can get away with saying this because the other diggers weren't Orcadian.)
Teams of Neolithic workers were given sections to dig in this ditch. The effort involved in digging through rock was considerable. They would have been using hammer stones, antler picks and scapula shovels made from the shoulder blade of cattle.
They dug a series of pits, which were then joined together, giving the ditch a shape reminiscent of a string of sausages.
The spoil from the ditch may have been dumped away from the site, forming the huge mound nearby that is called ‘Salt Knowe.’
The knowe (pronounced "now") is named after the salty water of the Stenness Loch. A mound by the side of the Harray Loch is very sensibly called ‘Fresh Knowe’, as the water there is fresh.
Salt Knowe has not been examined and remains a mystery, but it could be formed from rock and earth taken from the ditch during construction.
The Ring of Brodgar should not be seen as an isolated site, but as one part of a huge ceremonial complex of standing stones and buildings.
At the south of this area are the Stones of Stenness ...
...with the Barnhouse Neolithic settlement nearby.
Between the Stones of Stennes and the Ring of Brodgar is the Ness of Brodgar. Its large walls and buildings lack the usual domestic furnishings, suggesting a purely ceremonial use.
Beyond the Ness of Brodgar, lies the Ring of Brodgar, which is surrounded by mounds containing Neolithic tombs and Bronze Age burial mounds.
The presence of these tombs shows that the site was considered sacred and important for a long period of time after the Neolithic, as well.
An earthen work boundary wall, called the Dyke of Sean (pronounced see-in) crosses the isthmus. Erosion caused by cattle to this earth wall has uncovered finely-made stonework that looks Neolithic in origin.
On the crest of the hill stands the enigmatic Ring of Bookan.
The Ring of Brodgar doesn’t seem to have any astronomical alignment. Although with so many stones, they would have lined up with something.
Maybe great ceremonial gatherings took place in this special landscape, giving people in Neolithic times the opportunity to meet, trade and fall in love. Maybe marriages were arranged?
What were their spiritual beliefs and practices? Their language? Their philosophical outlook on life?
In the end, all we know is that we simply don’t know. But we can imagine ....
The path that leads to the ring begins at a car park across the road. You'll walk along a wooden walkway over marshy ground. In spring and summer, you'll enjoy a profusion of meadow sweet, bog cotton, yellow flag iris (called segs in Orkney) lady’s smock and ragged robin as you walk.
As you approach the stones they seem to rise out of the ground in front of you.
A reinforced path leads you to the ring itself after you cross the road. Disabled parking is situated by the side of the road next to this path.
In recent years access to the inside has been restricted at times due to erosion of the path and the need to preserve the site. Please be patient, and observe the instructions as to where to walk.
It's for the good of the stones.
Don't worry - the view from outside the ring is still dramatic.
This Neolithic wonder is free to visit and open year-round. Guided tours at Brodgar run throughout the year, courtesy of Historic Environment Scotland Rangers.
June, July and August: every day at 1pm
September through the winter months until the end of May: every Thursday at 1pm
The Stones of Stenness and Barnhouse tours run throughout the year.
June, July and August: every Monday, Wednesday and Friday at 10am
September through the winter months until May: every Wednesday at 10am
Mermaid image (Rhonda's pages) and storyteller image (Tom's pages), and all other illustrations except where noted are here by the courtesy of our dear friend - Stromness author, artist and historian, Bryce Wilson MBE, who owns all copyrights. Thanks, Bryce!